The first church here was called San Nicolo. The site was bought by the Confraternity of Butchers in 1523, and with the backing of Pope Julius II it was rebuilt and rededicated to Our Lady. The appellation is the same as that of an important sanctuary near Viterbo, and the church was mainly used by the many people from that region who lived in the area. The oak tree is also the heraldic symbol of Pope Julius II.
In 1727, Pope Benedict XIII had the church rebuilt. It was re-consecrated in 1738.